“Mahogany Plantation in India”The project “Mahogany Planation in India” is a grouped afforestation activity in form of agrisilvicultural system that intends to satisfy multiple Sustainable Development Goals through Project Activity. The project is implemented on multiple scattered small land parcels within the 65 districts across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat and Telangana States in India. The objective is to plant on multiple scattered small landholdings owned by various farmers aggregating to 15,000 hectares’ land across the Project Area which shall create direct positive impact on livelihoods of more than 25,000 farmer families or 100,000 individuals and indirect positive impacts on large number of individuals involved in various project and allied activities. Plantation under this Project is carried out by the multiple farmers by planting Mahogany trees on their privately owned agriculture land. MVAL is the Project Proponent (PP), responsible for development of Carbon Credit Project. MVAL intents to register the project under VERRA registry, a non-profit organization that operates standards in environmental and social markets, including the world’s leading carbon crediting program, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program. MVAL is responsible for the implementation of the Project Activity in coordination with the farmers and other relevant stakeholders.
Eligibility criteria:The land parcels to be included in the Project should meet the following conditions:
- Should fall under the districts mentioned above
- Should not have any forest covers prior to 10 years
- Should be privately owned lands with clear possession and access to the land and does not form part of Government declared protected areas
- Should not fall under wetland category
- Should be a crop land or fallow land or barren land
The land is prepared in a such a manner that ensures the minimum disturbance of soil. The plot is marked in such a way to accommodate 1,111 seedlings per hectare ensuring sufficient access for carrying out intercropping. Pits of appropriate sizes preferably of 1.5’ x 1.5’ are dug manually.
Intercrops:We will provide inputs on the most appropriate intercrops that are symbiotic with the plantation. Furthermore, we are assisting in the development of symbiotic high-value intercrop alternatives suitable for various stages of plantation growth. We are conducting research on over 100 land parcels to determine the impact of Mahogany plantations on soil health, as well as the qualitative and quantitative impact on intercrops.
Managed Plantation:Mahogany Plantation is a managed plantation activity which includes the following:
- Stakeholder Awareness Programs- Farmers and stakeholders are made aware through multiple forums such as Trade Exhibitions, Social Media Platforms, Advertisements, conducting local stakeholder consultation which includes Introduction of the project, Project details including Eligibility and applicability criteria, Permanence, About VCS and CDM mechanism, Benefits from the Plantation project, Grievance Mechanism for stakeholders, Carbon Stock Assessment methods, Yearly/Biennial monitoring process for Sustainable development, Feedback/Questions from Stakeholders, Question and Answer session
- Process for Admission of Farmers – Inclusion of Farmer in the Project Activity is completed after satisfying the mandatory applicability and eligibility conditions set out by MVAL. Screening of documents such as Land Title Deed, Proof of no previous forest cover, no wetlands and other relevant information is sought before signing contractual agreements with Farmers.
- Sourcing of Seedlings – Mahogany seedlings in line with the SOPs are sourced from the technically qualified nurseries. Nursery owner provides requisite infrastructure such as Land and Labour while we provide input quality parameters in respect of seeds, fertilization and pest control at the nursery premises.
- Hardening Centre – This ensures the acclimatisation of seedlings obtained from nurseries. Acclimatization is an important part of the process that allows seedlings to have a near to zero mortality rate when planted in land parcels. Currently we have 4 Hardening centres in the State of Maharashtra
- Plantation Activities – Plantation is carried out in a such a manner that ensures the minimum disturbance of soil. The plot is marked in such a way to accommodate 1,111 seedlings per hectare or equivalent proportioned thereof which also ensures sufficient access for carrying out intercropping.
- Plantation Management – We have team of Agronomists with extensive subject knowledge visits each plantation site regularly for quality inspection and growth monitoring. These Agronomists are available within a range of 100 km radius for any plantation site.
- AI Based Precision Farming – We have explored Satellite Monitoring of the Mahogany Trees, Land Use and intends to implement it in the near future. Following areas are identified for satellite monitoring
HarvestingWe have prepared Integrated Harvesting cum Replantation Plan in line with the Project schedule along with SOPs for implementing the same. Farmers may harvest in consultation with us considering the quality with respect to circumference in inches, density in kg/m3 and colour of the harvested wood. The first harvesting may begin after the completion of minimum 15 years from the date of plantation and the same is enforced through contractual agreement. The Project is designed in such a way that it allows the harvesting only twice. The decision of harvesting will be solely dependent on the Farmer and they may delay final harvesting accordingly. The Agreements between Farmer and MVAL has built-in provisions for providing carbon credits benefits till 100 years from start date of the project.
ReplantationThe replanting will take place in the same land parcels with the same spacing, accommodating 1,111 trees per hectare or equivalent proportioned thereof. Below is the pictorial representation of replantation:
|Synonym||Swietenia Candollei Pittier ; Swietenia Tessmannii Harms ; Swietenia Krukovii Gleason ; Swietenia Belizensis Lundell ; Swietenia Macrophyllavar. Marabaensis Ledoux & Lobato.|
|English Name||Big-Leaf Mahogany; Honduras Mahogony|
|Other Names||Aguano, Mogno, Caoba|
|Dutch Name||AHonduras Mahonie|
|Varieties||S. Humilis Proposed As An Ecotype By Helgason Et Al. 1996|
|Hybrids||Hybrids Of S. Humilis X S.Macrophylla (Costa Rica); S. Mahagoni X S.Macrophylla (Caribbian Islands)|
|Crown Habit||umbrella-shaped crown. fast-growing perennial tree with tall straight, cylindrical bole clear of branches for 12-18m, often with high buttresses.|
|Max. Height (M)||50|
|Max. Dbh (Cm)||200|
|Leaf Length (Cm)||16-40|
|Leaf Petiole (Cm)||0.5-1.2|
|Leaf Colour Upper Surface||Dark Glossy Green|
|Leaf Colour Under Surface||Lighter Green|
|Leaves Arrangement||Pinnate leaves arranged alternately an clustered at the ends of branchlets, each leaf consists of 3-6 pairs of opposite or occasionally sub-opposite leaflets that are typically 9-14 x 3-5 cm, usually oblong to oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate|
|Flowering||Takes place annually with the timing varying between locations according to climate, usually takes place when trees are deciduous or just coming into new leaf and shortly before the rainy season.|
|Flowering Plant||Monoecious, Both Sexes In The Same Inflorescence, With Unisexual Flowers|
|Flower, Inflorescence Description||Small flowers are borne in auxiliary or sub-terminal inflorescences, unisexual, with both sexes similar, green yellowish, corolla with 5 petals. each inflorescence is 10-20 cm in length with short lateral, spreading, globous branches, generally shorter than the leaves.|
|Flower Diameter (Mm)||6 To 8 Mm|
|Pollination||By insects: bees and moths are believed to be the main pollen vectors, thrips may act as pollinators.|
|Fruit; Length||Large (12-15 X 6-8 Cm), woody, erect, capsules, oblong to slightly sub-globulus. The outer valves are thick and becoming woody with a coriaceous surface when mature. When dry, the 4 or 5 valved fruits split open from the base, or from the base and the apex simultaneously. The centre of the fruit is a thick, woody 5 angled columella extending to the apex from which the seeds hang pendulous by their wing, leaving conspicuous seed scars after their release.|
|Fruiting||Takes place annually with the timing varying between locations according to climate. In Central America, northern parts of South America, and the Philippines the fruits mature from December-March. In the southern hemisphere is from June-September|
|Seed; Length||Seeds are chestnut coloured and 7.5-12 cm in length with wings, 1 cm without, irregular forms. there are usually about 35-45 winged seeds per fruit.|
|Seed-Wing Length||6-7 cm|
|Weight Of Seeds||13,000 To 20,000 Seeds Kg-1|
|Seeds Ripen||From End Of January To Beginning Of March, Also In July|
|Seed Dispersal||By Container, Wind. Median Seed Dispersal Distance of 32-36 M (Bolivia) And A Maximum Distance of Over 80m. This Distance Depend On the Height of the Tree, The Height and Density of Surrounding Vegetation and the Strength of Wind at the time of release.|
|Distribution||From 20°N to 18°S in Tropical America. Widely Distributed Species occurring from The Atlantic Regions of South-East Mexico, Through Central America (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama), Northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru) And Across the Southern Amazon Basin, In Bolivia and Brazil. Mahogany has been planted in forest plantations in many other Indian states, including West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Orrisa, Bihar, and Mysore. Kerala has the largest mahogany plantation area (more than 1283 acres). These mahogany plantations are primarily dispersed among Kerala's eight forest divisions. In Kerala, the Word Bank initiative established 1735 hectares of mahogany plantations between 1987 and 1999|
|Introduced Countries||Widely grown across the tropics both on a research scale and as extensive plantations.|
|Plant Communities Natural Area||Semi Evergreen And Evergreen Rain Forests, Dry Forests, Moist Forests, Rain Forests, Riparian Forest, Secondary Forests|
|Soil Type, Water||Adapted to Fine and Medium Textured Soils, Not Coarse Soils, Low Moisture. Found Growing On Alluvial Soils of Considerable Fertility, And Soils Derived from Limestone, Granite, Andesite and Other Sedimentary, Igneous or Metamorphic Rock Formation.|
|pH||Maximum 8.0 And Minimum 4.0|
|Soil Fertility||Tolerates soils ranging from deep, poorly drained, acid clays of the wooded swamps, to well drained alkaline soils of the limestone uplands. maximum development is attained on deep, fertile, moist, well-drained, neutral to mildly alkaline soils.|
|Light||Shade Intolerant, Strongly Light-Demanding|
|Optimum Natural Development||Under Tropical Dry Forest Conditions: Annual Precipitation of 1000-2500 mm, Mean Annual temperature of 24°C and Potential Evapo-Transpiration Ratio of 1-2.|
States and Districts:
- Uttar kannada (karvari)
- Chota Udaipur